Classification of pediatric enuresis into monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is crucial for management because these cases differ in many clinical respects. However, correct classification is frequently confused based on questionnaire and/or bladder diary. We tested the consistency of information obtained on lower urinary tract symptoms between our questionnaire and bladder diary.
A total of 108 physically and neurologically normal patients (mean age 7.2 years) with enuresis were included in the study. All patients filled out the questionnaire and 3-day bladder diary completely. Our questionnaire included items on urinary frequency, daytime incontinence and voiding postponement. A total of 93 patients underwent uroflowmetry and residual urine measurements. We analyzed information on lower urinary tract symptoms from the questionnaire and the bladder diary, as well as the uroflowmetry results.
The percentage of children with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis was 89.8% and 68.5% based on the questionnaire and bladder diary, respectively. In comparisons between the questionnaire and bladder diary we did not observe any significant consistency regarding urinary frequency (p = 0.912), daytime incontinence (p = 0.356) or voiding postponement (p = 0.505). Maximum voided volume, average voided volume and percent maximum voided volume/expected bladder capacity of children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were significantly higher than in those with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis based on the bladder diary (p = 0.006, 0.001 and 0.041, respectively). By contrast, no significant difference was found between children with monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis based on the questionnaire (p = 0.559, 0.597 and 0.947, respectively).
Significant discrepancies in lower urinary tract symptoms were observed between the questionnaire and bladder diary. Therefore, a detailed history and discussion with the patient and family should be performed to correlate with the questionnaire and bladder diary for the proper treatment of children with enuresis. An updated questionnaire containing a detailed scoring system may be needed.