Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare entity of spontaneous, recurrent pneumothorax occurring in synchrony with the menstrual cycle. The etiology is not completely known, but in most cases it is associated with thoracic endometriosis and/or diaphragmatic fenestrations. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman with three episodes of catamenial pneumothorax. The surgical findings were thoracic endometriosis and diaphragmatic holes. She underwent resection of the affected part of the diaphragm and pleurodesis via a mini-thoracotomy and videothoracoscopy assistance.