Repetitions to fatigue (RTF) using less than a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load (RepWt) have been shown to be a good predictor of 1RM strength in men, but such information is scarce in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of current prediction equations to estimate 1RM bench press performance and to determine whether resistance training changes the capability to predict 1RM from muscular endurance repetitions in young women. Members (n = 103) of a required wellness course were measured for 1RM bench press and RTF using randomly assigned percentages between 60% and 90% of the 1RM (RepWt) before and after 12 weeks of progressive resistance training. The %1RM used to perform RTF remained the same for each individual after training (75.6% +/- 10.3%) as before. One repetition maximum bench press increased significantly after training (28% +/- 21%). Although the change in the group average for RTF (0.6 +/- 6.1) was not significant, the correlation between pretraining and posttraining RTF was moderate (r = 0.66; p < 0.01), and individual differences in percentage change in RTF were substantial (27% +/- 99%). The percentage change in 1RM was not significantly related to initial 1RM (r = -0.05), but it was negatively related to the change in RTF (r = -0.40; p < 0.01). Prediction equations were more accurate in the pretraining and posttraining conditions, in which fewer than 10 RTF were used. Resistance training may alter the relationship between strength and muscle endurance across a wide range of RTF in young women without compromising the accuracy of predicting maximal strength.