The objective of this study was to examine whether metabolic syndrome, defined according to adult treatment panel III criteria, is associated with insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones, independently of age and gender. A cohort of 651 euthyroid overweight and obese patients, 440 women and 211 men, aged 18-68 years, were examined. Central fat accumulation (indirectly measured by waist circumference), fasting thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), FT(3), FT(4), insulin, glucose, and lipid (cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride) serum concentrations, 24-h urinary catecholamines, and the level of insulin resistance (estimated by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR))) were measured. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed higher insulin (P < 0.001) and FT(3) (P < 0.001) serum levels and higher 24-h urinary noradrenaline (P < 0.001) than subjects without this syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome parameters was directly associated with insulin (P < 0.001) and FT(3) (P < 0.05) serum levels, and with 24-h urinary noradrenaline (P < 0.001) in the whole population. When a multiple regression analysis was performed with the metabolic syndrome as the dependent variable, and age, gender, and insulin, and TSH, FT(3), FT(4) serum levels, and 24-h urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline as independent variables, the metabolic syndrome maintained an independent positive association with age (P < 0.001), male sex (P < 0.001), insulin (P < 0.001), and 24-h urinary noradrenaline (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study suggests that insulin and noradrenaline cooperate independently to the development of the metabolic syndrome.