To investigate the association of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure in patients with pT3aN0 prostate cancer (PCA).
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 94 patients with pT3aN0 PCA treated with RP alone. All of the 94 patients were prospectively observed without any treatment until PSA failure was confirmed. We investigated the association of LVI with the adverse pathological findings in RP specimens and the PSA failure-free survival rate. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to elucidate predictors of PSA failure.
Median follow up was 47.4 months (quartile range 9.1 to 146.8). LVI was found in 26 (27.7%) of the 94 patients. In a multivariate analysis, PSA (P = 0.0054) and LVI (P = 0.015) were significant and independent predictors of PSA failure. Stratifying patients into four risk groups by LVI status and PSA level, the PSA failure-free survival rate in patients with negative LVI and PSA < or =10 ng/mL was significantly better than any other groups (positive LVI and/or PSA >10 ng/mL).
Adjuvant therapy would not be indicated to patients with pT3aN0 PCA with negative LVI and PSA < or =10 ng/mL.