The present study investigated the effect of music-elicited moods on the subsequent affective processing through a music-primed valence categorization task. Event-related potentials were recorded for positive and negative emotional pictures that were primed by happy or sad music excerpts. The reaction time data revealed longer reaction times (RTs) for pictures following negative versus positive music pieces, irrespective of the valence of the picture. Additionally, positive pictures elicited faster response latencies than negative pictures, irrespective of the valence of the musical prime. Moreover, the main effect of picture valence, and the music by picture valence interaction effect were both significant for P2 amplitudes and for the averaged amplitudes at 500-700ms interval. Negative pictures elicited smaller P2 amplitudes than positive pictures, and the amplitude differences between negative and positive pictures were larger with negative musical primes than with positive musical primes. Similarly, compared to positive pictures, negative pictures elicited more negative deflections during the 500-700ms interval across prime types. The amplitude differences between negative and positive pictures were again larger under negative versus positive music primes at this interval. Therefore, the present study observed a clear emotional negativity bias during either prime condition, and extended the previous findings by showing increased strength of the negative bias under negative mood primes. This suggests that the neural sensitivity of the brain to negative stimuli varies with individuals' mood states, and this bias is particularly intensified by negative mood states.