Influenza is an acute infectious disease which may cause spectacular health, social and economic effects. Influenza may be prevented and treated in a sufficient way. The paper presents general rules of usage of current antiviral drugs--neuraminidase inhibitors--in prophylaxis and treatment of seasonal, avian and pandemic influenza. The paper describes mechanism of action of neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), their main pharmacokinetic features, dosing and side effects. There was emphasized the necessity of the early introduction of treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors (36-48 hours after first symptoms) and the short duration of treatment (5 days). It is also discussed the role of neuraminidase inhibitors in the clinical management of avian influenza (H5N1) and their role in fighting with a pandemic disease.