The purpose of this study was to assess the 3-year outcome of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) in patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus.
The optimal method of revascularization in diabetic patients remains in dispute.
The ARTS-II (Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study-Part II) trial is a single-arm study (n = 607) that included 159 diabetic patients treated with SES whose 3-year clinical outcome was compared with that of the historical diabetic and nondiabetic arms of the randomized ARTS-I trial (n = 1,205, including 96 diabetic patients in the CABG arm and 112 in the PCI arm).
At 3 years, among nondiabetic patients, the incidence of the primary composite of death, CVA, myocardial infarction (MI), and repeat revascularization (major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events [MACCE]), was significantly lower in ARTS-II than in ARTS-I PCI (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26 to 0.64) and similar to ARTS-I CABG. The ARTS-II patients were at significantly lower risk for death, CVA, and MI as compared with both the ARTS-I PCI (adjusted OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.91) and ARTS-I CABG patients (adjusted OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.92). Among diabetic patients, the incidence of MACCE in ARTS-II was similar to that of both PCI and CABG in ARTS-I. Conversely, the incidence of death, CVA, and MI was significantly lower in ARTS-II than in ARTS-I PCI (adjusted OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.27 to 1.65) and was similar to that of ARTS-I CABG.
At 3 years, PCI using SES for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease seems to be safer and more efficacious than PCI using bare-metal stents, irrespective of the diabetic status of the patient. Hence, PCI using SES appears to be a valuable alternative to CABG for both diabetic and nondiabetic patients.