To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of soft and purified propolis extracts. STUDY OBJECT AND METHODS: Antimicrobial activity of soft and purified propolis extracts was determined with reference cultures of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 33499, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus ATCC 8035, and fungus Candida albicans ATCC 60193. Microbiological tests were performed under aseptic conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)--the highest dilution of preparation (the lowest concentration of preparation) that suppresses growth of reference microorganisms--was determined.
Concentration of phenolic compounds in soft propolis extract that possesses antimicrobial activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis) is 0.587+/-0.054 mg and 0.587+/-0.054-0.394+/-0.022 mg (P>0.05) and in purified propolis extract--0.427+/-0.044 mg and 0.256+/-0.02 mg (P>0.05). Klebsiella pneumoniae is most resistant to soft propolis extract when the concentration of phenolic compounds is 1.119+/- 0.152 mg and to purified propolis extract when the concentration of phenolic compounds is 1.013+/-0.189 mg (P>0.05). Spore-forming Bacillus subtilis bacteria are more sensitive to soft and purified propolis extracts when the concentration of phenolic compounds is 0.134+/-0.002 mg and 0.075+/-0.025 mg, respectively, and Bacillus cereus--when the concentration is 0.394+/-0.022 mg and 0.256+/-0.02 mg (P>0.05). Sensitivity of fungus Candida albicans to soft and purified propolis extracts is the same as Bacillus subtilis. Encapsulated bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae is most resistant to antimicrobial action of soft and purified propolis extracts as compared with gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria (P<0.05), gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis (P<0.05), spore-forming Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus bacteria (P<0.05), and fungus Candida albicans (P<0.05). There is no statistically significant difference between antimicrobial effect of soft propolis extract and purified propolis extract on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, spore-forming bacteria, encapsulated bacteria, and Candida fungus.
Soft and purified propolis extracts possess antimicrobial activity. They could be recommended as natural preservatives in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products.