Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Little is known about hemostatic features of patients with PHPT. To our knowledge, plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) levels in these patints have not been investigated. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the markers of endogenous coagulation/fibrinolysis, including TFPI and TAFI, and to investigate the relationships between serum calcium and PTH and these hemostatic parameters in patients with PHPT.
Twenty-four patients with PHPT and 20 age-, sex-, and-weight-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), TFPI, and TAFI were measured. The relationships between serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH and these hemostatic parameters were examinated.
Compared with the control subjects, t-PA, PAI-1, and PAI-1/t-PA ratios were significantly increased in patients with PHPT (P<0.0001), whereas TFPI levels were significantly decreased (P<0.0001). Plasma TAFI Ag levels did not significantly change in patients with PHPT compared with the controls. In patients with PHPT, serum phosphorus was negatively correlated with plasma PAI-1 Ag levels and PAI-1/t-PA ratio (r: -0.453, P<0.05; r: -0.580, P<0.01 respectively). There was a positive correlation between Cl/P ratio and plasma PAI-1 levels and PAI-1/t-PA ratio (r: 0.434, P<0.05; r: 0.528, P<0.05 respectively). iPTH was positively correlated with plasma PAI-1/t-PA ratio (r: 0.429, P<0.05).
In conclusion, we found some important differences in the hemostatic parameters between the patients with PHPT and healthy controls. Increased PAI-1, PAI-1/t-PA ratios and decreased TFPI levels in these patients represent a potential hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state, which might augment the risk for atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic complications. This condition may contribute to the excess mortality due to cardiovascular disease seen in patients with PHPT.