Selenium (Se), a nutritionally essential trace element with known antioxidant potential, protects the brain from oxidative damage in various models of neurodegeneration. Intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rats causes impairment of brain glucose and energy metabolism along with oxidative damage and cholinergic dysfunction, and provides a relevant model for sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). The present study demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of Se on cognitive deficits and oxidative damage in ICV-STZ in rats. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with sodium selenite, a salt of Se (0.1 mg/kg; body weight) for 7 days and then were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg), while sham rats received the same volume of vehicle. After two ICV-STZ infusions, rats were tested for memory deficits in passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests and then were sacrificed for biochemical and histopathological assays. ICV-STZ-infused rats showed significant loss in learning and memory ability, which were significantly improved by Se supplementation. A significant increase in thio-barbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC) and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and glutathione reductase [GR]) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in hippocampus were observed in ICV-STZ rats. Se supplementation significantly ameliorated all alterations induced by ICV-STZ in rats. Our study reveals that Se, as a powerful antioxidant, prevents cognitive deficits, oxidative damage and morphological changes in the ICV-STZ rats. Thus, it may have a therapeutic value for the treatment of SDAT.