Bronchiolitis obliterans is an uncommon and severe form of chronic obstructive lung disease that results from an insult to the lower respiratory tract. The bronchiolitis obliterans was described as a complication of graft versus host disease in bone marrow or lung transplant recipients. Bronchiolitis obliterans is most commonly seen in children after severe viral lower respiratory tract infections. The understanding of pathology, pathogenesis and molecular pathology, as well as the best treatment in bronchiolitis obliterans remain the subject of ongoing investigations. This review discusses our current knowledge on the different areas of bronchiolitis obliterans associated to infectious disease.