To determine whether women with both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of obstetric complications compared with women with GDM alone.
A retrospective cohort study of maternal/fetal outcomes in women with GDM and PCOS was compared with women with GDM alone. Outcomes were compared using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables. Logistic regression models allowed for the calculation of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome, adjusted for confounding.
One hundred seventy one women were included in the study. Significantly more women with both GDM and PCOS had pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia (15.9% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.019, OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 1.38-15.41). Multiple logistic regression revealed that this increase persisted after controlling for body mass index (p = 0.028, OR = 4.43, 95% CI = 1.17-16.72) and parity (p = 0.050, OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.00-11.92). Women with GDM and PCOS tended to have more preterm deliveries (25.0% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.063). More infants of women with GDM and PCOS required phototherapy treatment for hyperbilirubinemia (25.0% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.0066, OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 1.52-9.98). Logistic regression revealed that this association persisted after controlling for preterm delivery (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.14-8.82, p = 0.026).
Mothers with both disorders should be monitored more carefully and counseled regarding their increased risk of both maternal and fetal complications.