Migraine is a common, recurrent, primary headache disorder associated with significant morbidity as well as high direct and indirect costs. Despite its impact, only a proportion of migraineurs who meet criteria for prophylactic treatment take preventive medication. Antiepileptic drugs and beta-blockers are among the most used preventive therapies, but their exact mechanisms of action in migraine prophylaxis are unknown. Recent research has pointed to the role of cortical spreading depression in the genesis of migraine aura and pain, with neuronal-glial gap junctions playing a prominent part in cortical spreading depression. Tonabersat is a unique compound with demonstrated activity as a gap-junction inhibitor in animal studies. In preclinical and clinical trials, tonabersat was well tolerated, with no cardiovascular effects; the pharmacokinetic profile suggested its usefulness in the prophylaxis of migraine.