To investigate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in Taiwanese men aged <45 years.
Voiding and erectile function in 226 men with T2DM, at one diabetes clinic, and 183 healthy men with normal fasting blood glucose levels, were compared. Participants were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF-5), and measurements of flow rate and postvoid residual urine volume. The association of metabolic syndrome with LUTS and ED was also evaluated.
The mean (sd, range) age of the patients was 38.9 (6.1, 20-45) years and the mean duration of diabetes was 2.8 (3.1, 0.5-20) years. Compared with controls, men with T2DM had a significantly mean (sd) higher IPSS, of 6.1 (5.8) vs 4.1 (4.6) (P < 0.001), an increased of odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of having moderate to severe LUTS of 1.78 (1.12-2.84) (P = 0.01), greater voiding volume of 376 (177) vs 326 (102) mL (P = 0.04), a worse IIEF-5 score of 17.3 (6.4) vs 20.0 (3.8) (P < 0.001), an increased of odds ratio of having moderate to severe ED of 3.5 (2.1-5.8) (P < 0.001) but a similar maximum flow rate and postvoid residual. The IIEF-5 score was negatively correlated with the IPSS (P < 0.0001, coefficient = -0.23, 0.35-0.11) and glycosylated haemoglobin (P = 0.02, coefficient = -0.14, 0.26-0.01). In all, 156 (69%) patients met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. The mean age, duration of diabetes, glycosylated haemoglobin, IPSS, voided volume, maximum urinary flow rate and IIEF-5 score were similar between patients with and without metabolic syndrome.
Men with T2DM and aged <45 years had more LUTS but a similar bladder emptying function than the controls. ED was highly prevalent and was associated with the severity of LUTS. Metabolic syndrome did not aggravate the severity of LUTS, emptying function or ED in the early stage of DM.