The neurobehavioral effects of inhaled cyclohexane in rats and humans are investigated to define relationships between internal doses and acute central nervous system effects. Rats are exposed for 3 consecutive days at target concentrations of 0, 1.4, 8, and 28 g/m(3), 8 h/d. Measurements include standardized observational measures, spontaneous motor activity assessments, and learned visual discrimination performance. Cyclohexane concentrations in blood and brain are measured to assess internal exposure. Human volunteers are exposed for 4 hours to 86 or 860 mg/m(3) in 2 test sessions. Neurobehavioral effects are measured using a computerized neurobehavioral test battery. In rats, there are slight reductions in psychomotor speed in the high-exposure group but minimal central nervous system effects. In humans, there are no significant treatment-related effects at the levels tested.