Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing countries, and also appears to be an emerging agent in industrialized countries. HEV infection is transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and may be a zoonosis in industrialized countries. HEV infection was thought to be responsible for acute hepatitis that does not become chronic. However, it has been recently reported that HEV infection can evolve to chronic hepatitis and to cirrhosis, at least in solid-organ transplant patients. The reduction of immunosuppressive drugs could be considered as a first-line therapeutic option.