BPH affects 70% of men aged 60-69 and 80% of those aged 80 and above. Recently, an association between BPH and metabolic dysfunction has been postulated, suggesting links between factors that increase the risk of CVD with the risk of BPH and LUTS. As modifiable lifestyle factors play a major role in systemic metabolic disturbance and CVD, similar lifestyle factors may modify the risk of LUTS/BPH. Moderate alcohol intake reduces the risk of CVD. A meta-analysis looked at alcohol intake, BPH and LUTS. Alcohol intake was stratified into six levels, from < or = 5 g/day to > 36 g/day. Consumption of alcohol was found to decrease the likelihood of BPH in all six strata, but not LUTS. Compared with no alcohol, an alcohol intake of > or = 36 g/day was associated with a 35% decreased likelihood of BPH (OR 0.65).