The chemical composition of the essential oils of nine taxa from seven sections of Hypericum L. (Guttiferae; H. perforatum subsp. perforatum, H. perforatum subsp. veronense, H. calycinum, H. montanum, H. richeri subsp. richeri, H. hyssopifolium, H. hirsutum, H. hircinum subsp. majus, and H. tetrapterum) occurring in central Italy (Appennino Umbro-Marchigiano) was analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. A total of 186 compounds were identified in the different species and subspecies, accounting for 86.9-92.8% of the total oils. The major fraction of the oil was always represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3-77.2%), while quantitative differences occurred between the other classes of volatiles depending on the taxa considered. Chemical composition of the nine Hypericum entities with respect to the taxonomical classification was discussed. Essential oils obtained from six taxa, i.e., H. perforatum subsp. perforatum, H. perforatum subsp. veronense, H. calycinum, H. richeri subsp. richeri, H. hirsutum and H. tetrapterum, were also tested for their antimicrobial properties against five different microbial strains by the broth-microdilution method, and they were found to have significant activity (expressed as MIC) on B. subtilis, moderate activity on C. albicans and S. aureus, and weak activity on E. coli and E. faecalis, the most active being those from H. hirsutum, H. richeri subsp. richeri, and H. tetrapterum.