Sulfonylurea herbicides are widely used in crop production on the Canadian prairies and a portion of these herbicides applied to cropland are inevitably lost to surrounding aquatic ecosystems. Little is known regarding the presence of sulfonylurea herbicides in wetlands located amongst cropland. This paper describes a new analytical method for the extraction and the determination of seven sulfonylurea herbicides (thifensulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, ethametsulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, rimsulfuron, nicosulfuron and sulfosulfuron) in wetland sediment. The method provided > 85% analyte recovery from fortified sediment for six of the seven sulfonylurea herbicides with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 microg kg(-1). Tribenuron-methyl had significantly lower recovery compared to the other six sulfonylurea herbicides (LOQ = 2 microg kg(-1)). Mean recovery standard deviations were < 10%. This methodology was used to quantify sulfonylurea herbicide residues in sediment samples collected from prairie wetlands situated within the agricultural landscape of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. This is the first-known detection of sulfonylurea herbicide residues in prairie wetland sediments. Ethametsulfuron-methyl, sulfosulfuron and metsulfuron-methyl, the three most environmentally persistent of the seven sulfonylurea herbicides monitored in the surveillance component of this study, were most frequently detected in wetland sediment with mean concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 10 microg kg(-1).