The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of the First Class Appliance (FCA) (Leone, Firenze, Italy) used for the distalization of maxillary first molars in patients with Class II malocclusion and mixed dentition.
According to the results of the power analysis for sample size calculation, 32 consecutive patients with bilateral Class II molar relationships were initially included in the study. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 26 patients remained for the final evaluation. They were randomized into 2 groups: treatment group (n = 15) and untreated control group (n = 11). Lateral cephalograms and dental casts were obtained before and immediately after distalization for the treatment group, and initially and approximately 22 weeks later for the control group. Statistical evaluation of the variables included the mixed 2-way analysis of variance at P <0.05. The method error was also estimated.
The mean treatment period to achieve a full Class I molar relationship was 17.2 weeks. Analysis of the data showed significant distalization of the maxillary first molars produced by the FCA (mean: 4.00 mm) when compared with the untreated group (mean: 0.95 mm). The rate of molar movement was 1.00 mm per month, which, however, was associated with distal tipping of the first molars (8.56 degrees) and anchorage loss of the anterior dental unit in terms of overjet increase (0.68 mm), and mesial movement (1.86 mm) and inclination (1.85 degrees) of the first premolars or first deciduous molars. The maxillary first molars also moved buccally (1.37 mm), but no significant distal rotation occurred.
The FCA is an efficient noncompliance appliance to distalize molars in the mixed dentition without distal rotations. However, these movements are associated with distal molar tipping and anchorage loss of the anterior teeth.