Cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels and intrathecal synthesis of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 80 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients grouped according to clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease activity. Eighty patients with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 80 patients with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND) served as neurological controls. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were higher in OIND than in multiple sclerosis (p < 0.0001) and NIND (p < 0.01) for anti-viral-capsid-antigen (anti-VCA) IgG, in multiple sclerosis than in NIND (p < 0.01) and in OIND than in NIND (p < 0.05) for anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Serum levels were more elevated in OIND than in multiple sclerosis (p < 0.05) and in MRI inactive than in MRI active multiple sclerosis (p < 0.0001) for anti-VCA IgG, and in multiple sclerosis than in OIND and NIND (p < 0.01) for anti-EBNA-1 IgG. Serum titres of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA-1 IgG were also positively (p < 0.05) and inversely (p < 0.001) correlated, respectively, with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. An intrathecal IgG production of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA-1 IgG, as indicated by Antibody Index, was present only in a limited number of multiple sclerosis patients and controls (range from 1.3 to 6.3%). These findings do not support a direct pathogenetic role of EBV-targeted humoral immune response in multiple sclerosis.