The rise in asthma prevalence over the last few decades may be a result of changes in prenatal or early-life environment, including maternal diet during pregnancy. Previous studies have found associations between individual foods or nutrients consumed during pregnancy and asthma or wheeze in children, but these may be confounded by overall dietary pattern.
To determine whether overall maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy is associated with recurrent wheeze in children.
A total of 1376 mother-infant pairs from Project Viva, a longitudinal prebirth cohort, who had responses for food frequency questionnaires in the first and second trimester and outcome data at 3 years of age were included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to look at associations between dietary pattern and the primary outcome of recurrent wheeze at 3 years. Overall dietary pattern was examined by using Mediterranean diet score, Alternate Healthy Eating Index modified for pregnancy (AHEI-P), and principal components analysis to look at Western and Prudent diets.
None of these dietary patterns was associated with the primary outcome of recurrent wheeze in children in either the crude or the multivariable model (multivariable model, odds ratio per 1-point increase in Mediterranean diet, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.89-1.08]; AHEI-P, 1.07 [0.87-1.30]; Prudent, 1.02 [0.83-1.26]; Western, 0.98 [0.81-1.19]).
Overall dietary pattern during pregnancy is not associated with recurrent wheeze in this cohort. Maternal intake of individual nutrients may be more important determinants of offspring wheeze-associated illness than is dietary pattern.