The antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of pu-erh tea in rats with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups and fed varying diets for an 8-week period: control diet, HFD, and HFD supplemented with low, moderate or high doses of pu-erh tea extract (0.5 g, 2 g and 4 g/kg BW/day, respectively). Pu-erh tea significantly reduced the total body weight and the weight of various adipose pads. Pu-erh tea administration also significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in rats with HFD-induced obesity, but did not affect high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Moreover, pu-erh tea significantly increased lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase activities in epididymal fat tissue in rats with HFD-induced obesity. Analysis of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results indicated that pu-erh tea significantly enhanced mRNA levels of hormone-sensitive lipase in rats with HFD-induced obesity. These results suggest that pu-erh tea attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in a rat model of HFD-induced obesity.