the purpose was to describe the outcomes and characteristics of the obstetric patients with concurrent eclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP) syndrome.
we retrospectively collected the materials between December 1999 and December 2008 in Obstetric Critical Care Center of Guangzhou. There were 76 patients in rolled then they were divided into two groups according to with or without HELLP syndrome. All the patients were injected Magnesium Sulfate to control seizure and to prevent the recurring of seizure. We analyzed the characteristics (such as age, gestational weeks, blood pressure after seizure), complications, biochemistry markers, the rate for intensive care unit (ICU) admittion, the need for mechanical ventilation, the Glasgow coma score (GCS) when admitted into ICU, computed tomography scan (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), death rate of maternal and others, then compared between the two groups.
(1) general data: There were 17 patients admitted with both eclampsia and HELLP syndrome, and 59 patients admitted eclampsia without HELLP syndrome. The incidence of eclampsia with HELLP syndrome was 22% (17/76). In eclampsia with HELLP syndrome group, the systolic blood pressure was higher and the rate of preterm also was higher [(182 ± 20) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) vs. (159 ± 21) mm Hg, P < 0.05]. But in regard to the age, gestational weeks, the rate of regular prenatal care and diastolic blood pressure, there were no differences between the two groups. (2) Biochemistry markers: the aspartate transaminase (AST), lanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were significantly increased in eclampsia with HELLP syndrome group than eclampsia without HELLP syndrome group [(879 ± 337) U/L vs. (90 ± 27) U/L, (344 ± 83) U/L vs. (43 ± 11)U/L, (2245 ± 294) U/L vs. (485 ± 61) U/L, (14 ± 9) mmol/L vs. (7 ± 3) mmol/L, (140 ± 92) µmol/L vs. (83 ± 28) µmol/L, P < 0.01, P < 0.05], and the platelet was lower in eclampsia with HELLP syndrome group [(38 ± 13) × 10(9)/L vs (172 ± 46) × 10(9)/L, P < 0.01]. (3) Clinical outcomes: The maternal death rate was 35% (6/17) in eclampsia with HELLP syndrome patients, and significantly higher than the rate in eclampsia without HELLP syndrome group (3%, 2/59) (P < 0.05). There were more patients admitted to ICU and more patients who need mechanical ventilation in eclampsia with HELLP syndrome (13/17 vs. 34%, 9/17 vs. 24/, P < 0.05), also more patients with GCS ≤ 8 in eclampsia with HELLP syndrome when admitted to ICU (8/17 vs. 7/59, P < 0.05), compared to the eclampsia without HELLP syndrome group. There were more patients complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis and cerebral hemorrhage in eclampsia with HELLP syndrome group than other group (8/17 vs. 7%, P < 0.05). Five of six patients died of cerebral hemorrhage in eclampsia with HELLP syndrome group, while other two missing cases in eclampsia without HELLP syndrome group all died of cerebral hemorrhage. The all missing cases were performed CT or MRI and seven (7/8) of them showed cerebral hemorrhage.
the incidence of concurrent eclampsia and HELLP syndrome was not rare, it happened seriously and with more mortalities, such as cerebral hemorrhage, and also the maternal mortality rate was significantly higher. It should be warning that the obstetrician should take great attention for these women, and consider life support treatment for them.