Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore. is used in Indian system of traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of the hexane extract of Symplocos cochinchinensis leaves in high fat diet-low streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rats.
The doses for the study were fixed based on Irwin test. The hypoglycemic effect of the hexane extract of Symplocos cochinchinensis leaves were studied in normal rats. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests were carried out. The antihyperglycemic effect of the hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg was studied in high fat diet-low STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats for 28 days.
The extracts showed no adverse effects up to 5 g/kg concentration. In hypoglycemic study, after treatment with hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg the blood glucose was mildly reduced. In oral glucose tolerance test, the treatment with the hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg showed a highly significant reduction of 12.07% and 23.58% in plasma glucose levels, respectively 30 min after glucose load. The insulin tolerance test also showed improved insulin sensitivity after 60 min of insulin treatment. In high fat diet-low STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats, after 28 days treatment with the hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced the plasma glucose level by 17.04% and 42.10%, respectively. A significant reduction in plasma insulin, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) and a significant increase in liver glycogen were observed in treated diabetic rats.
This study demonstrated the potential antidiabetic property of hexane extract of Symplocos cochinchinensis leaves on type 2 diabetes mellitus, thus justifying its traditional usage.