The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess what was the optimal gestational weight gain to have better maternal and neonatal outcomes in overweight and obese Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who maintained normoglycemia throughout pregnancy by dietary modification, exercise, and/or insulin treatment.
We performed a hospital-based study of 215 GDM women with prepregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Body weight, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, insulin treatment, and maternal outcomes were collected as predictors of neonatal birth weight. We divided the subjects into three groups according to modified Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy: inadequate (n = 42), normal (n = 96), and excessive (n = 77) groups.
Excessive weight gain resulted in increased macrosomia, HbA(1c) at delivery, and postprandial blood glucose levels, but fasting blood glucose levels were not significantly different among the groups. The inadequate weight gain group (2.4 kg weight gain during pregnancy) had better neonatal outcomes and better maternal glycemic control with fewer requiring insulin treatment.
Minimal weight gain, well below IOM recommendations, and tight control of blood glucose levels during pregnancy with proper medical management and dietary modification may eliminate most of the adverse pregnancy outcomes experienced by obese GDM Asian women.