Calculating the estimated resting energy expenditure (REE) in severely obese patients is useful, but there is controversy concerning the effectiveness of available prediction equations (PE) using body weight (BW). We evaluated the efficacy of REE equations against indirect calorimetry (IC) in severely obese subjects and aimed to develop a new equation based on body composition compartments. One hundred and twenty severely obese patients had their REE measured (MREE) by IC and compared to the most commonly used PE (Harris-Benedict (HB), Ireton-Jones, Owen, and Mifflin St. Jeor). In a random sample (n = 60), a new REE equation based on fat-free mass (FFM) was developed and validated. All PE studied failed to estimate REE in severe obesity (low concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and limits of agreement of nearly 50% of the sample ±10% of MREE). The HB equation using actual BW exhibited good results for all samples when compared to IC (2,117 ± 518 kcal/day by HB vs. 2,139 ± 423 kcal/day by MREE, P > 0.01); these results were blunted when patients were separated by gender (2,771 vs. 2,586 kcal/day, P < 0.001 in males and 1,825 vs. 1,939 kcal/day, P < 0.001 in females). A new resting energy expenditure equation prediction was developed using FFM, Horie-Waitzberg, & Gonzalez, expressed as 560.43 + (5.39 × BW) + (14.14 × FFM). The new resting energy expenditure equation prediction, which uses FFM and BW, demonstrates higher accuracy, precision, CCC, and limits of agreement than the standard PE in patients when compared to MREE (2,129 ± 45 kcal/day vs. 2,139 ± 423 kcal/day, respectively, P = 0.1).The new equation developed to estimate REE, which takes into account both FFM and BW, provides better results than currently available equations.