To examine first trimester safety of angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-receptor-blockers (ARBs).
Prospective observational cohort regarding pregnancy ACEI/ARBs-exposure including contacts to two Teratology Information Services in Israel (1994-2007) and Italy (1990-2008), with two comparison groups: (1) exposed to other antihypertensives (OAH) (2) after non-teratogenic exposure (NTE) in similar time frames.
252 ACEI/ARBs-exposed, 256 OAH-exposed and 495 NTE-exposed pregnancies were followed-up. The rate of major congenital anomalies was comparable between the groups (8/190, 4.2%, ACEI/ARB; 9/212, 4.2%, OAH; 18/471, 3.8% NTE; p = 0.954) among first trimester exposed pregnancies. The median gestational age at delivery was two weeks earlier, rate of preterm deliveries more than 2-fold higher, and median birth weight more than 200 g lower in the ACEI/ARB and OAH groups compared to the NTE group.
The present study suggests that ACEI/ARBs are not major teratogens when used in the first trimester, and can reassure women with similar exposures.