Intraindividual comparisons of diets supplemented with sunflowerseed oil (rich in linoleic acid, LA, C18:2n-6), linseed oil (enriched with alpha-linolenic acid, LNA, C18:3n-3) and canned mackerel (rich in eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, C22:6n-3) were made in 30 patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) of phenotypes IIa (n = 9), IIb (n = 7), IV (n = 7) and V (n = 7). The lipid- and blood pressure-lowering effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly those of the EPA- and DHA-rich diet, were confirmed irrespective of the type of HLP. Apolipoproteins A-I and B remained unchanged. The most remarkable finding was a substantial depression of free fatty acids (FFA) within a standardized glucose tolerance test (GTT) associated with the fall of serum triglycerides after diets enriched with n-6 and especially after those supplemented with n-3 PUFA. It was suggested that the decrease of FFA indicates reduced peripheral lipolysis, which might be a hitherto ignored factor involved in the triglyceride-lowering action of n-6 and, more pronounced, of n-3 PUFA.