The relationships among anthropometric variables, dietary nutrients, and plasma steroid, polypeptide, and binding-protein hormone concentrations were investigated in 24 Seventh-day Adventist postmenopausal women, 12 vegetarian (SV) and 12 nonvegetarian (SNV). Fasting blood and 7-d dietary intake information were collected. SVs consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber and fewer saturated fatty acids than did SNVs. The thigh and sum of three skinfold-thickness measurements were significantly greater for SNVs than for SVs. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17 beta were significantly lower in SVs than in SNVs. Significant relationships were observed for the combined groups (SV and SNV) between estradiol-17 beta and triceps and suprailiac skinfold thickness and body fat. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17 beta of the combined groups revealed a significant negative relationship between their crude and dietary fiber intakes. Further study delineating the effects of adiposity and dietary nutrients on basal concentrations of sex hormones is warranted.