Despite the many advantages that laparoscopic surgery has for patients, it involves a series of risks for the surgeon. These are related to the reduced freedom of movement and forced postures which lead to greater muscle fatigue than with conventional surgery. In laparoscopic surgery there are few references on the introduction of training programs in ergonomics, despite the numerous advantages demonstrated in other disciplines. The application of ergonomic criteria in the surgical field could have great benefits, both for surgeons and patients. In this work we attempt to review the existing literature and our experience to provide the surgeon with some ergonomic guidelines for body stance and positioning of equipment. We also present a training model based on ergonomics which we have introduced into the training activities carried out in our Centre.