The purpose of this study was to determine whether an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) would augment integrative mixed muscle and myofibrillar protein fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) when total energy and macronutrient intake was controlled. Twelve healthy young men were studied over 24 hours and performed an acute bout of exhaustive (5 sets until volitional failure of their 85% 1-repetition maximum) unilateral leg press and knee extension exercise, such that one leg was exercised (EX) and the other served as a control (CON). (2)H(2)O (70%) was provided to measure mixed muscle and myofibrillar FSR, and muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were collected from the EX and CON legs 16 hours following the RE session. (2)H-labeling of body water over the course of the experiment was 0.32 ± 0.01 mole percent excess. Interestingly, integrative mixed muscle FSR (percent per hour) was similar between the CON (0.76% ± 0.08%) and EX (0.69% ± 0.06%) legs. In contrast, upon determination of myofibrillar FSR, there was an RE effect (EX, 0.94% ± 0.16% vs CON, 0.75% ± 0.08%; P < .05). High-intensity RE without prior training impacts integrative myofibrillar 24-hour FSR, perhaps without altering total responses.