Phα1β is a potent toxin obtained from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer that blocks neuronal voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels. This study compared the antiallodynic effects of Phα1β, ω-conotoxin MVIIA and morphine in mice and their side effects in rats. Mechanical allodynia was measured in mice receiving single intrathecal administration of Phα1β, ω-conotoxin MVIIA or morphine before or after the incisional plantar procedure. The effect of the treatments on cardiovascular profile and global neurological were evaluated in rats. The expression of pro or anti-inflammatory cytokines of human polymorph mononuclear cells was also evaluated. Preemptive use of ω-conotoxin MVIIA (1.0 or 10 pmol/site) or morphine (1000 pmol/site) induced shorter antiallodynic effect than Phα1β (100 pmol/site) in mice. Post-incision administration of Phα1β (200 pmol/site) induced longer mechanical antiallodynic effect than ω-conotoxin MVIIA (1.0 or 10 pmol/site) or morphine (1000 pmol/site). Intrathecal injection of Phα1β (200 pmol/site) and morphine (433 pmol/site) did not change while ω-conotoxin MVIIA (100 pmol/site) increased the heart rate in rats 3 h after its administration. Phα1β (200 pmol/site), ω-conotoxin MVIIA (100 pmol/site) and morphine (433 pmol/site) did not change mean arterial pressure 0.5 and 3 h after their administration. The treatments did not alter neurological performance assessed by global neurological evaluation and open-field test. The tested drugs did not induced expression of pro or anti-inflammatory cytokines in CD4 monocytes. In conclusion, preemptive administration Phα1β in mice induced longer antiallodynic effect than ω-conotoxin MVIIA and morphine. Phα1β also induced a longer mechanical antiallodynic effect than ω-conotoxin MVIIA and morphine when used after the surgical incision. The present results suggest that Phα1β has a potential application in the management of postoperative pain with low side effects.