The aim of the study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (dGp) immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA regarding the age at celiac disease (CD) diagnosis and the anti-dGp IgG usefulness for diagnosing CD IgA-deficient patients.
Anti-dGp IgG and IgA and anti-native gliadin (nGlia) IgA were determined by enzyme fluoroimmunoassay in 100 newly diagnosed anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA-positive pediatric and adult patients with CD and in 100 age-matched patients with other digestive pathologies. Anti-dGp IgG was evaluated in 6 CD IgA-deficient patients.
When analyzing all of the patients, the anti-dGp IgG assay showed higher diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic curve), specificity, and positive predictive value than anti-dGp IgA and anti-nGlia IgA. All of the diagnostic parameters corresponding to anti-dGp IgG reached the same values as anti-tTG IgA in children 7 years or younger. In older patients, both anti-dGp isotypes showed an inverse behavior, IgG having a higher specificity and positive predictive value but a lower sensitivity and negative predictive value than IgA. Anti-dGp levels were associated with the severity of intestinal lesions, and an inverse association was found regarding age at diagnosis. Both anti-dGp IgG and IgA were found to be positive in the 9 patients with minimal intestinal changes included in the study. All of the patients with CD with IgA deficiency were positive for anti-dGp IgG.
The diagnostic performance of anti-dGp depends on the antibody isotype and on the age at CD diagnosis, anti-dGp IgG being a serological marker at least as useful as anti-tTG IgA for detecting CD in children ages 7 years or younger. Our data also indicate that anti-dGp IgG can improve the diagnosis of IgA-deficient patients.