Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and free testosterone (FT) are both associated with increased mortality. Experimental studies show a complex interplay of vitamin D and androgen metabolism suggesting that a deficiency of both hormones may be associated with a particularly adverse clinical outcome.
To evaluate the impact of parallel FT and 25(OH)D deficiency in a large cohort of older men.
We measured total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin and 25(OH)D levels in 2069 men who were routinely referred for coronary angiography (1997-2000).
Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) (with 95% confidence intervals) for mortality from all causes, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes according to combined deficiency of FT and 25(OH)D.
In multivariate-adjusted analyses, we found an increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality for men in the lowest FT [HR 1·26 (1·03-1·54), 1·24 (0·96-1·60) and 1·39 (1·00-1·93), respectively] and 25(OH)D quartile [HR 1·77 (1·47-2·13), 1·65 (1·29-2·10) and 1·89 (1·38-2·60) respectively] compared with men in higher FT and 25(OH)D quartiles. There was no independent association of TT levels with mortality. Multivariate-adjusted HRs progressively increased with the number of hormones (FT and 25(OH)D) in the lowest quartile [0 vs 2 hormone deficiencies: 2·11 (1·60-2·79) for all cause, 1·77 (1·23-2·55) for cardiovascular and 2·33 (1·45-3·47) for noncardiovascular mortality, respectively].
A combined deficiency of FT and 25(OH)D is significantly associated with fatal events in a large cohort of men referred for coronary angiography.