This study assessed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of E. foetidum leaf extract on LPS-activated murine macrophages.
RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with or without E. foetidum extract for 1 h prior to incubation with LPS for 24 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated with reference to iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. In addition, NO and intracellular ROS generation were determined by Griess method and fluorescence intensity and activation of MAPKs and IκB by Western blotting.
Prior treatment with E. foetidum leaf extract inhibited elevation of IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, together with their cognate mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. NO and intracellular ROS contents were similarly reduced. These effects were due to inhibition of LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 as well as IκB. E. foetidum ethanol extract was shown to contain lutein, β-carotenes, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol and caffeic acid, compounds known to exert these bioactive properties.
E. foetidum leaf extract possesses suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators. Thus, E. foetidum has a high potential to be used as a food supplement to reduce risk of cancer associated with inflammation.