Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly prevalent in developing countries and the WHO estimates one third of the world population has had contact with the virus. Its diagnosis and epidemiology are well known in endemic countries but, recently, there have been sporadic cases in developed countries in patients with no history of travel. Currently in these countries, hepatitis E is considered a zoonosis yet there remain to be known other routes of transmission. Another interesting aspect is that HEV can cause chronic hepatitis in transplanted patients, other immunocompromised patients and even in immunocompetent people. There have also been reported cases of fulminant hepatitis and other extrahepatic manifestations. The diagnosis is based on serological studies and detection of viral RNA in blood and feces. The vaccine is a good option to prevent this infection that affects a large number of people in deprived geographical areas but unfortunately it is not available yet.