Hyperoside is a flavonoid compound and widely used in clinic to relieve pain and improve cardiovascular functions. However, the effects of hyperoside on ischemic neurons and the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used an in vitro ischemic model of oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD-R) to investigate the protective effects of hyperoside on ischemic neuron injury and further explore the possible related mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that hyperoside protected cultured cortical neurons from OGD-R injury, it also relieved glutamate-induced neuronal injury and NMDA-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. As for the mechanisms, hyperoside firstly attenuated the phosphorylation of CaMKII caused by OGD-R lesions. Meanwhile, hyperoside lessened iNOS expression induced by OGD-R via inhibition of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, ameliorating of ERK, JNK and Bcl-2 family-related apoptotic signaling pathways were also involved in the neuroprotection of hyperoside. Taken together, these studies revealed that hyperoside had protective effects on neuronal ischemia-reperfusion impairment, which was related to the regulation of nitric oxide signaling pathway.