To date, few studies have demonstrated the impact of variations in blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid levels on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetic patients. This study aimed to assess the associations of mean values and variability in metabolic parameters with the development of DN in type 2 diabetic patients.
A total of 864 patients who had participated in a comprehensive diabetic care program for at least for 3 years were studied. Patients were stratified into progressor (n = 180) and non-progressor groups (n = 684) according to the status of progression of DN during the follow-up period. By Cox regression analysis, a higher mean HDL-C level was observed to be a protective factor against the progression of DN [hazard ratio (95% CI): 0.971(0.953-0.989), P = 0.002] and a higher HDL-C variation was found to be associated with a higher risk [hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.177(1.032-1.341), P = 0.015] of DN progression. By the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, patients with a higher HDL-C level and lower HDL-C variability were found to have the lowest risk of development of nephropathy.
Our study demonstrated for the first time that type 2 diabetic patients under a standard disease management program who have a stable and a higher mean HDL-C level were associated with a lower risk of development of DN.