To clarify the relationships between marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) and Waldenström macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas (WM/LPLs), immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene (IGHV) features were analyzed and the occurrence of MYD88 L265P mutations was identified in a series of 123 patients: 53 MZLs from the spleen (SMZLs), 11 from lymph nodes (NMZLs), 28 mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) lymphomas and 31 WM/LPLs. SMZLs were characterized by overrepresentation of IGHV1-2 gene rearrangements with a canonical motif, without selection pressure and with long CDR3 segments. NMZLs had increased frequencies of IGHV3 genes. The IGHV gene was unmutated in most cases, often with long CDR3 segments. MALT lymphomas were usually associated with a mutated IGHV gene, but with the absence of selection pressure. WM/LPLs were associated with an IGHV3-23 overrepresentation and high IGHV mutation rate, with features of selection pressure and short CDR3 segments. MYD88 L265P mutations were almost restricted exclusively to WM/LPL patients. Taken all diagnoses together, all patients with MYD88 L265P mutations had an immunoglobulin M peak and almost all patients except one had bone marrow infiltration. These results demonstrate that the history of antigen exposure of the four entities studied was different and MYD88 L265P was specifically associated with WM/LPLs. WM/LPL may thus be functionally associated with constitutive nuclear factor-κB activation.