Effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) after administration of the complete (3 dose) regimen has been demonstrated in a real-world setting. This study assessed the effectiveness of RV5 following partial completion of the 3-dose regimen.
Using a large national health insurance claims database, 2 cohorts of infants (those who received RV5 and a concurrent group who received diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, but not RV5) were followed through the 2007 and 2008 rotavirus seasons (January 1 to May 31) to identify cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis and all-cause gastroenteritis resulting in medical care encounters. Vaccine effectiveness following the first and the second RV5 doses was estimated by quantifying reductions in hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and physician office visits.
A first RV5 dose was received by 42,306 infants whereas 28,417 infants in the concurrent comparison group received a first diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis dose; 43,704 infants received a second RV5 dose, and 31,810 infants received a second diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis dose. One dose of RV5 was associated with 88% effectiveness against rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations and ED visits and 44% effectiveness against all-cause gastroenteritis hospitalizations and ED visits. A 2-dose regimen of RV5 was associated with 94% effectiveness against rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations and ED visits and 40% effectiveness against all-cause gastroenteritis hospitalizations and ED visits.
The RV5 vaccine exhibits effectiveness against rotavirus gastroenteritis even before completing the full 3-dose regimen. These results are of particular relevance when considering the benefits of a partially completed rotavirus vaccine series.