Sevoflurane, a common used inhaled anaesthetic, induces neuronal apoptosis in preclinical studies and correlates with functional neurological impairment. We investigated whether FTY720, a known sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist, could exert neuroprotective effect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. Neuroprotective effect of FTY720 was evaluated in vitro in hippocampal neuronal cells from neonatal rats and in vivo in rat pups. In vitro cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for different period of time, or after 6-h exposure to sevoflurane with the presence of FTY720, SEW2871 (selective S1P1 receptor agonist) or combination of FTY720 and VPC23019 (S1P antagonist). Western blot analysis was performed with hippocampal tissue from rat pups exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6 h with or without pre-treatment with FTY720 injection. Neurological function tests were also performed with rat pups exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6 h with or without pre-treatment with FTY720 injection. FTY720, at nanomolar concentration, significantly prevents sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis. SEW2871 showed similar neuroprotective effect to FTY720, whereas VPC23019 abrogated the neuroprotective effect of FTY720 when given together. Western blots results demonstrated that FTY710 significantly preserved the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2, Bcl-2 and Bax. Although anaesthetic treatment did not affect general health and emotional status, sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in rat models. Administration of FTY720 at 1 mg/kg significantly attenuated sevoflurane-induced neurocognitive impairment. Although further studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility of clinical usage of FTY720 as neuroprotective agent, the study provides preclinical experimental evidence for the efficacy of FTY720 against sevoflurane-induced developmental neurotoxicity.