Little is known about the smoking cessation and smoking relapse behavior of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs).
The current study used longitudinal data from a representative sample of the US adult population to examine changes in smoking over 3 years for men and women with and without AUD and DUD diagnoses.
Participants were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who completed the Wave 2 assessment 3 years later (n = 11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of AUD and DUD diagnoses on smoking cessation and smoking relapse.
Wave 1 current daily smokers with a current AUD (OR = .70, 95% CI = .55, .89), past AUD (OR = .73, 95% CI = .60, .89), current DUD (OR = .48, 95% CI = .31, .76), and past DUD (OR = .62, 95% CI = .49, .79) were less likely to have quit smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. Wave 1 former daily smokers with a current AUD (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.36, 3.73), current DUD (OR = 7.97, 95% CI = 2.51, 25.34), and past DUD (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.84, 3.95) were more likely to have relapsed to smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. The gender by diagnosis interactions were not significant.
Current and past AUDs and DUDs were associated with a decreased likelihood of quitting smoking, while current AUDs, current DUDs, and past DUDs were associated with an increased likelihood of smoking relapse.