Mangiferin has been reported to possess antidiabetic activities. Norathyriol, a xanthone aglycone, has the same structure as mangiferin, except for a C-glucosyl bond. To our best knowledge, no study has been conducted to determine and compare those two compounds on glucose consumption in vitro.
In this study, the effects of norathyriol and mangiferin on glucose consumption in normal and insulin resistance (IR) L6 myotubes were evaluated. Simultaneously, the potential mechanism of this effect was also investigated.
Normal or IR L6 myotubes were incubated with norathyriol (2.5 ∼ 10 μM, 0.625 ∼ 2.5 μM), mangiferin (10 ∼ 40 μM, 2.5 ∼ 10 μM) or rosiglitazone (20 μM) and/or 0.05 nM insulin for 24 h, respectively. The glucose consumption was assessed using the glucose oxidase method. Immunoblotting was performed to detect protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in L6 myotubes cells.
Norathyriol and mangiferin treatment alone increased the glucose consumption 61.9 and 56.3%, respectively, in L6 myotubes and made additional increasing with 0.05 nM insulin. In IR L6 myotubes, norathyriol treatment made increasing with or without insulin, mangiferin treatment also made increasing but only when co-treated with insulin. Immunoblotting results showed that norathyriol and mangiferin produced an increase of 1.9 - and 1.8-fold in the phosphorylation levels of the AMPK, but not in Akt.
Our findings suggest that norathyriol and mangiferin could improve the glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity by up-regulation of the phosphorylation of AMPK. Norathyriol may be considered as an active metabolite responsible for the antidiabetic activity of mangiferin.