To assess the efficacy and safety of one- and two-step dose-increase regimens of lixisenatide once daily in participants with Type 2 diabetes mellitus insufficiently controlled with metformin.
This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-centre study enrolling participants with Type 2 diabetes (n = 484) treated with metformin. Participants were randomized to receive either lixisenatide in a one-step dose increase or a two-step dose increase vs. placebo for 24 weeks, followed by a ≥ 52-week variable double blind period. Primary outcome was HbA1c reduction at week 24.
Lixisenatide one-/two-step once daily significantly improved HbA1c at week 24 compared with placebo (P < 0.0001) and allowed more participants to achieve HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol (< 7.0%) (P ≤ 0.0005). Improvements were observed in fasting plasma glucose (-0.5/-0.6 vs. +0.1 mmol/l; P < 0.001) and body weight (-2.6/-2.7 vs. -1.6 kg; P < 0.005). At week 24, adverse events were reported by 67.7/70.8/65.6% of participants treated with lixisenatide one-/two-step/placebo, respectively--nausea and vomiting being reported most frequently. Symptomatic hypoglycaemia occurred in 1.9/2.5% of participants on one-/two-step lixisenatide and 0.6% with placebo, with no severe episodes. Lixisenatide continued to be efficacious and well tolerated during the variable double-blind extension period of at least 52 weeks.
Lixisenatide one- or two-step dose-increase regimens significantly improved glycaemic control and decreased body weight over 24 weeks and during a long-term extension period without increasing hypoglycaemia. The study confirmed that tolerability in the one-step group was at least similar to the two-step dose increase, with nausea/vomiting and hypoglycaemia frequency being lower in the one-step regimen.