Data are scarce on the penetrance of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PETs) and insulinomas in young MEN1 patients. A potential positive correlation between tumor size and malignancy (2-3 cm, 18%; >3 cm, 43%) has greatly influenced the management of MEN1 adults with NF-PETs.
The aim of the study was to estimate the penetrance of NF-PETs, insulinomas, and gastrinomas in young MEN1 carriers.
The data were obtained from a screening program (1996-2012) involving 113 MEN1 patients in a tertiary academic reference center.
Nineteen MEN1 patients (aged 12-20 y; 16 patients aged 15-20 y and 3 patients aged 12-14 y) were screened for NF-PETs, insulinomas, and gastrinomas.
Magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) were performed on 10 MEN1 carriers, magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography was performed on five patients, and four other patients underwent an EUS.
The overall penetrance of PETs during the second decade of life was 42% (8 of 19). All eight PET patients had NF-PETs, and half of those tumors were multicentric. One-fifth of the screened patients (21%; 4 of 19) harbored at least one large tumor (>2.0 cm). Insulinoma was detected in two NF-PET patients (11%) at the initial screening; gastrinoma was not present in any cases. Six of the 11 (54%) screened patients aged 15-20 years who underwent an EUS had NF-PETs. Potential false-positive EUS results were excluded based on EUS-guided biopsy results, the reproducibility of the NF-PET findings, or the observation of increased tumor size during follow-up. Distal pancreatectomy and the nodule enucleation of pancreatic head tumors were conducted on three patients with large tumors (>2.0 cm; T2N0M0) that were classified as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumors (Ki-67<2%).
Our data demonstrated high penetrance of NF-PETs in 15- to 20-year-old MEN1 patients. The high percentage of the patients presenting consensus criteria for surgery for NF-PET alone or NF-PET/insulinoma suggests a potential benefit for the periodic surveillance of these tumors in this age group.