Hypovitaminosis D and executive dysfunction in older adults with memory complaint: a memory clinic-based study.
Hypovitaminosis D is associated with executive dysfunction as a whole. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether lower vitamin D levels were associated with mental flexibility, information updating, or cognitive and motor inhibition among older adults.
One hundred Caucasian older community dwellers with memory complaint (mean, 71.02 ± 0.74 years; 52.0% female) were divided into 3 groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration (deficiency <25 nmol/l, insufficiency 25-50 nmol/l, sufficiency >50 nmol/l). Executive functions were assessed with error rates by executing the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) for mental flexibility, the N-Back Test for information updating, the Stroop Interference Test for cognitive inhibition, and the Go/No-Go score for motor inhibition. Age, gender, BMI, education level, number of morbidities, depressive symptoms, Mini-Mental State Examination score, calcemia, estimated glomerular filtration rate and season tested were considered as potential confounders.
Compared to participants with vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency, those with vitamin D deficiency had a poorer TMT-B performance (p = 0.019 and p = 0.017, respectively) but similar N-Back (p = 0.175), Stroop (p = 0.135) and Go/No-Go (p = 0.224) scores. Cognitive performance did not differ between participants with insufficient and sufficient vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with poorer performance on TMT-B (adjusted β = 1.48, p = 0.011), but not on N-Back (p = 0.665), Stroop (p = 0.817) or Go/No-Go (p = 0.971).
Vitamin D deficiency was associated with poorer mental flexibility among older community dwellers with memory complaint.
Division of Geriatric Medicine and Memory Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, Angers University Hospital, UPRES EA 4638, Angers, France.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't