The role of vitamin D in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed and both low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms (VDR) have been linked to PD. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among 25(OH)D and three VDR polymorphisms and PD in the Faroese population where the prevalence of PD is high. We conducted a case-control study where 121 cases were studied for 25(OH)D levels and VDR polymorphisms against 235 randomly selected controls, matched by gender and age. No significant difference was observed in 25(OH)D levels between PD cases and controls (P=0.49), although cases had slightly lower values than controls. As well, no differences were found in genotype frequencies between cases and controls in the VDR polymorphisms studied (ApaI, BsmI, TaqI) (P=0.70, P=0.56 and P=0.54, respectively). However, we found that VDR ApaI/AC genotype was significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels (P=0.01). Although our results indicate no association between PD and vitamin D polymorphisms and/or 25(OH)D levels, the study cannot exclude a weak association. However, the known doubling in PD prevalence in the Faroe Islands cannot be explained by the polymorphisms examined in the VDR gene or the 25(OH)D levels and has to be explored further.