Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays.
HPLC analyses showed that the gallic acid, pyrogallol, apigenin and rutin were the main phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all varieties of rice. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Hashemi and Ali Kazemi varieties showed the highest amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Rice straw and husk of Iranian varieties showed considerable antioxidant activity and Hashemi indicated significantly (P < 0.01) higher DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities when compared to the other varieties.
The present study revealed that rice straw and seed husk of Iranian varieties shows high antioxidant activities and they contain various types of phenolic and flavonoid compounds that could be use in food and medical industries.